Session 9

Language notes

Complex sentences are sentences made up from two clauses, each with its own verb, and linked by a word such as ...that... or ...who... , (although English sometimes omits these connecting words).  For example:

         (1)     We were expecting that the shop would be open today
                        first clause                                second clause  
         (2)     He opened the parcel that he had received in the post
                         first clause                              second clause

These examples are of two different kinds:   

Example (1) is a complex sentence in which the first clause provides a justification for the statement in the second clause.  
Other examples are:
                 It was suggested that we go to the conference
                 I heard that he was sitting in the cafe

For this type of sentence in Welsh, clauses in the present tense are often linked by the verb 'bod':
                  Mae nhw'n dweud bod y tŷ yn wag.
                  They say that the house is empty.

                  Rydw i'n gobethio bod ti'n hapus yn dy swydd newydd.
                  I hope that you are happy in your new job.

                  Ydych chi'n gwybod bod y bws yn hwyr?               
                  Do you know that the bus is late?  

In cases where a verb other than a present tense of 'bod' occurs in the second clause, the two parts of the Welsh sentence are simply joined together with the English '...that...' omitted.  The linking word 'y' may be added. For example:
                  Roeddwn i'n meddwl y dylwn ymweld nhw.
                  I was thinking that I should visit them.

                  Mae hi wedi darganfod y bydd y llun yn cael ei werthu.
                  She has discovered that the painting will be sold.

An exception to this rule is the imperfect tense, where bod is again used:
                  Credaf ei fod yn gweithio yn y ffatri.
                  I think that he was working in the factory.      (past time)
This may lead to misinterprestation as an alternative translation is:
                  Credaf ei fod yn gweithio yn y ffatri.
                  I think that he is working in the factory.          (present time)
It is therefore best to use an alternative verb pattern when the time of the event is not clear from the sentence context.                 

Please note: the word 'that' may be omitted in English, for example:
                      We expect the shop is open today
but must be shown in Welsh:
                      Rydyn ni'n disgwyl bod y siop ar agor heddiw

Example (2) is a compound sentence in which the second clause provides additional information about a person or thing which was introduced in the first clase. For example:
             Did you see the man who was driving the car?
                       first clause                       second clause  
             We put up the mirror which we bought in the sale.            
                        first clause                       second clause  

If the person or thing in the first clause does something in the second clause, then the parts of the sentence should be linked with 'sydd'.  
              first clause       action-->       second clause
For example:
             Dyma'r teulu sydd yn symud i mewn i'r tŷ.
             This is the family who are moving into the house.
The family mentioned in the first clause is carrying out the action of 'moving into the house' (i.e. they are the subject) in the second clause.

              Rydyn ni'n siarad 'r dyn sydd yn torri'r lawnt.
              We are speaking to the man who is cutting the lawn.
The man mentioned in the first clause is carrying out the action of 'cutting the lawn' (i.e. he is the subject) in the second clause.

If the person or thing in the first clause is having some action carried out on it by the second clause, then the parts of the sentence should be linked with 'y mae'.  
                       first clause       <--action       second clause

For example:
             Dyma'r tŷ y mae'r teulu'n ei brynu.   
             This is the house that the family is buying.
The house mentioned in the first clause has the action of 'being bought' carried out on it in the second clause. 

             Canmolodd yr adroddiad y mae'r rheolwr wedi'i ysgrifennu.   
             He praised the report that the manager has written.  
The report mentioned in the first clause has the action of 'being written by the manager' carried out on it in the second clause. 


We have come across the word 'yn' used as a preposition with the meaning 'in', for example:
       Mae'r beic yn y sied.               The bicycle is in the shed.

However, 'yn' also appears in sentences for several grammatical reasons.

'Yn' is used to create adverbs from adjectives.  For example, cyflym is an adjective which can be used to describe the noun 'car':
        Mae gen i gar cyflym.             I have a fast car.

However, by adding 'yn' we can create the adverb 'quickly':
         Cerddon ni yn gyflym i'r orsaf reilffordd.    
         We walked quickly to railway station.  
In this case, 'yn gyflym' is describing how the action of the verb 'cerdded' is carried out.  Notice that 'yn' causes a soft mutation of the adjective.

Other examples of adverbs created from adjectives are:
     Siaradodd yn flin gyda'r bachgen.         Blin  angry    
     He spoke angrily to the boy.
     Canodd y cr yn hardd.                          Hardd  beautiful                       
     The choir sang beautifully.
     Roedd e'n gweithio yn ddiogel.              Diogel  safe 
      He was working safely.

A soft mutation is applied where possible to the adjective. 

The next use of 'yn' relates to the sentence structure.

We have seen that a short form (cryno) sentence pattern causes a soft mutation to distinguish the subject from the part of the sentence which follows.  The soft mutation is applied to the word which follows the subject.  For example:
               Peintiodd yr adeiladwr dŷ.                                Tŷ
               The builder (subject) painted a house 

               Dylai'r adeiladwr baentio tŷ.                             Paentio
               The builder (subject) should paint a house  

However, in long form (cwmpasog) sentences using a tense of the verb 'bod' in combination with a verb noun, such as:
                            Maen nhw + dysgu
the word 'yn' takes the place of the soft mutation.  This is again to distinguish the subject from the remainder of the sentence.  There is no soft mutation of the verb noun which follows 'yn'.  
For example: 
               Mae'r adeiladwr yn paentio tŷ.
               The builder (subject) is painting a house 

               Bydd yr adeiladwr yn paentio tŷ.
               The builder (subject) will paint a house. 

               Byddai'r adeiladwr yn paentio tŷ.
               The builder (subject) would paint a house.

Other examples demonstrate the difference between cryno and cwmpasog sentence patterns. 
Cryno verbs cause a soft mutation of the word following the subject:            
              Darllenodd y myfyriwr lyfr am hanes Cymru.         Llyfr 
              The student (subject) read a book on Welsh history. 
               Darllenais i lyfr am hanes Cymru.
               I (subject) read a book on Welsh history.  
Note that personal pronouns such as 'i' may be omittted in written text, but the soft mutation is still applied as if it was present:
                Darllenais lyfr am hanes Cymru.        

In cwmpasog forms, the word 'yn' is added but there is no soft mutation of the verb noun which follows:
               Mae'r myfyriwr yn darllen llyfr am hanes Cymru. 
               The student (subject) is reading a book on Welsh history.  

               Roedd y myfyriwr yn darllen llyfr am hanes Cymru.
               The student (subject) was reading a book on Welsh history. 
               Byddaf [i] yn darllen llyfr am hanes Cymru. 
               I (subject) will read a book on Welsh history.  


'mewn' is usually translated as 'in' or 'into':

        Aeth i mewn i'r gegin.
        He went into the kitchen.
        Fe gyrhaeddon ni'r dref mewn llai na hanner awr.
        We reached the town in less than half an hour.

'mewn' appears in a number of commonly used phrases:

mewn angen - in need
     Roedd yna lawer o bobl mewn angen ar l y daeargryn.
     There were many people in need after the earthquake.

mewn cawl - in a mess
      Roedd y cwmni mewn cawl ar l i'r cyfrifiadur fethu.
      The company was a mess after the computer  failed.         

mewn chwinciad - immediately
      Pan welodd hi'r bachgen, redodd ato mewn chwinciad.
      When she saw the boy, she ran to him in an instant.

mewn cysylltiad   - in connection with
      Ffoniodd y siop mewn cysylltiad 'r nwyddau a archebwyd.
      The shop phoned in connection with the goods ordered.

mewn gwirionedd - as a matter of fact, actually
      Mewn gwirionedd, nid yw'r atgyweiriad wedi datrys y broblem.
       Actually, the repair has not solved the problem.
mewn golwg - under consideration, in mind
       Mae gennyn ni safle ar gyfer y ffatri newydd mewn golwg.
       We have a site for the new factory in mind.

mewn pryd - in time
        Fe gyrhaeddon ni'r sgwr mewn pryd i ddal y bws.
        We arrived in the square in time to catch the bus.

Translate the sentence:

Many people think that the Llangollen Canal is the most beautiful canal in Wales.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)


The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.


bat    ystlum  noun (m);   remote  anghysbell  adjective;
quiet  distaw  adjective;  occasional  achlysurol  adjective;
remind  atgoffa  verb;  scattered with  gwasgaru ;
silence  distawrwydd  noun (m);  frightening  brawychus  adjective;
lonely  unig  adjective;

Sam had always lived in the city.
He would sometimes drive into the countryside to go for a walk.
However, he had never stayed outside the city.
He thought it would be exciting to go for a few days to a holiday cottage in a remote part of Wales.
He packed a box of food for several days and set off.
He followed the road as far as it went.
He then had to continue for several miles along a rough track to reach the cottage.
After cooking a meal he went to bed, but he could not sleep.
It was too quiet.
There was no sound of cars and trains, which continue through the night in the city.
The occasional police siren in the middle of the night reminded him that people in the city were being protected.
From his cottage window, he looked out at the black sky scattered with stars.
A strange creature, a bat, flew by quietly.
The silence was frightening.
He did not enjoy being in such a lonely place.
There was no pub nor cinema, nor even a shop.
With some sadness he cut short his trip and returned to the city and its familiar noises.

Translate the sentence:

Sam had always lived in the city.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)

Create your own story in Welsh

Click the button to randomly select a set of story icons:

Use of Welsh

Letter to the editor

There are concerns in some parts of Wales that all the affordable housing is being sold as second homes for holidaymakers.

You are invited to translate a letter into Welsh which has been written by a local resident with strong views on the subject.


stability   sefydlogrwydd  noun (m);   afraid  ofnus  adjective; 
comfort  cysur  noun (m);  richest  cyfoethocaf   adjective;

Translate the sentence:

Second homes create problems.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:

Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

What forms of propulsion did the Royal Charter have?

What was the occupation of many of the passengers?

Why could the ship not reach Liverpool?

How did the shipwreck occur?

How were some people saved from the shipwreck?

What has been recovered from the wreck?

What memorials are there to the shipwreck?

Llongddrylliad y Royal Charter

Roedd y Royal Charter yn llong hwylio gyda peiriant ager a ddrylliwyd ar arfordir dwyreiniol Ynys Mn ger pentref Moelfre ar 26 Hydref 1859. Dyma`r llongddrylliad a laddodd fwyaf o bobl o bob un ar arfordir Cymru. Collwyd tua 200 o longau llai yn yr un storm.

Roedd y Royal Charter yn dychwelyd i Lerpwl o Melbourne. Roedd arni tua 371 o deithwyr gyda chriw o tua 112 a rhai pobl eraill oedd yn gweithio ir cwmni. Roedd llawer or teithwyr yn dychwelyd or cloddfeydd aur yn Awstralia, a llawer ohonynt yn dod ag aur yn l gyda hwy. Roedd llawer o aur hefyd yn cael ei gario fel cargo. Wrth ir llong gyrraedd arfordir gogledd-orllewin Mn roedd y gwynt yn dechrau codi.

Ceisiodd y Royal Charter godir peilot ar gyfer Lerpwl pan oedd gyferbyn Phwynt Lynas, ond roedd y mr yn rhy arw iddi gyfarfod y peilot. Yn ystod noson 25 Hydref cododd y gwynt i raddfa 12. Roedd y gwynt yn gyrrur llong tuag at arfordir dwyreiniol Mn. Am 11 or gloch y noson honno gollyngwyd yr angor, ond am hanner awr wedi un yn y bore torrodd y cebl oedd yn ei ddal. Gyrrwyd y Royal Charter tuar lan, gydar peiriant ager yn methu gwneud dim yn erbyn y storm. Yn gynnar ar forer 26 Hydref, wrth ir llanw godi, gyrrwyd hi yn erbyn y creigiau rhwng Moelfre a Thraeth Llugwy.

Gallodd un aelod or criw, Joseph Rogers, nofio ir lan gyda rhaff, a defnyddiwyd hon i achub ychydig o bobl, a gallodd ychydig rhagor nofio ir lan. Bu farw dros 450 o bobl, rhai wedi boddi ond y rhan fwyaf wedi eu lladd trwy gael eu hyrddio yn erbyn y creigiau gan y tonnau enfawr. Achubwyd 21 o deithwyr ac 18 or criw.

Dywedir fod llawer o aur wedi ei olchi ir lan yn y dyddiau nesaf, ac i rai teuluoedd ym Moelfre ddod yn gefnog dros nos. Cafwyd hyd i ynnau, sbectol, ac aur gan blymwyr tanfor dros y blynyddoedd. Defnyddir darganfyddwyr metel tanddwr yn ddiweddar.

Claddwyd y rhan fwyaf or cyrff ym mynwent Llanallgo gerllaw, lle gellir gweld beddau a chofeb iddynt. Mae hefyd gofeb ger y traeth uwchben y creigiau lle drylliwyd y llong, ger Llwybr Arfordirol Ynys Mn.

Enter each section of your story in Welsh in the boxes below: