Session 5

Language notes

Conjuctions join different components within a sentence.  In the simplest case, this may be two words, for example:
                bws a thacsi               bus and taxi
                papur a phensil          paper and pencil
The conjunction 'a' (and) causes an aspirate mutation (treiglad llaes). 
Conjunctions can link two sentences.  Where the sentences describe different events or ideas, a coordinating conjunction is used:
               and;    ond   but;    neu   or;      nid   not    
For example:
    Aeth i mewn i'r gegin ac agor yr oergell.
    He went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
    (note that 'a' becomes 'ac' before a vowel)
    Roedden ni'n bwriadu mynd ond roedd y tywydd yn ddrwg. 
    We intended to go but the weather was bad.  

     Fe allech chi dorri'r gwair neu fe allech chi blannu'r blodau.
     You could cut the grass or you could plant the flowers.  
     Byddaf yn gwylio'r ffilm gartref nid yn y sinema.
     I will watch the film at home not in the cinema.  

In other cases, a conjunction may link a subsidiary clause to the main clause of the sentence.  The subsidiary clause gives more information about the main clause, for example: when or why it happened, or the consequences of it happening.
Time conjunctions specify a time relationship.  In some cases, these should be followed by the preposition 'i' or a tense of the verb 'bod':
        ar l   after;        pan   when;                    cyn (i)  before;   
        erbyn (i)   by;     unwaith (bod)   once;    ers (i)  since;
        wedi (i)   after;   hyd   until;                       wrth (i)  while;  
        nes (i)   until;      tra (bod)   while;

Examples are:
         Byddaf yn mynd ar l gwylio'r ffilm
                I will go after watching the film
         Bydd yn cyrraedd erbyn i ni orffen y gwaith
                 He will arrive by the time we finish the work
         Bydd cinio yn barod unwaith y bydd y llysiau wedi'u coginio
                 Lunch will be ready once the vegetables are cooked
         Peidiwch sefyll i fyny nes i mi ddweud wrthych chi
                 Don't stand up until I tell you

Reason conjunctions indicate why a relationship exists.  They have the meaning 'as' or 'because' :
             achos (bod) ,      am (bod)
             oherwydd (bod),    gan (bod)     
Examples are:
        Rwy'n cerdded oherwydd bod y tywydd yn braf
                I am walking because the weather is fine
        Byddaf yn stopio gan ei bod hi'n cwyno am y sŵn
                I will stop as she is complaining about the noise 

Result conjunctions indicate the outcome of a relationship.  They have the meaning 'so' :
            fel (bod),        felly
An examples is:
        Torrodd ei goes felly eu bod nhw'n galw ambiwlans
               He broke his leg so they called an ambulance

Contrast conjunctions indicate a conflict within the relationship.  They have the meaning 'although', 'despite' or 'while':
            er (bod) ,             tra (bod)
Examples are:
        Parhaodd i weithio er ei fod wedi blino
                He continued working although he was tired
        Hoffais y stori, tra roeddwn i'n casu'r cymeriadau
                I liked the story, while I hated the characters

Purpose conjunctions indicate why a relationship exists:
          er mwyn (i)   in order;     fel (bod)  so;    rhag ofn   in case; 
Examples are:
        Fe wnes i atgyweirio'r babell er mwyn i ni fynd i wersylla
                 I repaired the tent in order that we can go camping
        Byddwch yn ofalus rhag ofn i chi gwympo
                 Be careful in case you fall
Conditional conjunctions indicate a requirement for the relationship to exist:
          os  if;     pe bai  if;      oni bai   unless;
Examples are:
        Gallwch ei wneud os ceisiwch yn galetach
              You can do it if you try harder
         Bydden ni'n helpu pe gallen ni
              We would help if we could
         Ni fyddwch yn gwybod oni bai eich bod yn gofyn
              You will not know unless you ask 


We have already discussed some situations in which a treiglad meddal is used:  
 When feminine nouns follow the article 'y' (the) :
           y bont        the bridge      pont noun (f)  

When one or more adjectives follow a feminine noun:
           dinas fawr fywiog   large lively city          
                    mawr adjective;     bywiog  adjective;

 The pronouns dyei (masculine only) affect nouns which follow:
            dy gt        your coat     ct   noun (f)     
            dy gar        your car       car  noun (m)   
            ei lyfr         his book       llyfr  noun (m)
Soft mutation occurs after the prepositions:  am, ar, at, dan, dros, gan, heb, hyd, i, o, tan, trwy, wrth.  For example:
         Es i am dro trwy bentref heb weld neb.
         I went for a walk through a village without seeing anyone.
                    tro  walk;  pentref village;  gweld  see;     
We will now look at some other cases where a treiglad meddal is required.

 Adjectives occurring before a noun cause a soft mutation of the noun:
             hen dŷ       old house                           tŷ  noun (m)
             hoff gerddoriaeth   favourite music    cerddoriaeth noun (f)
             prif wlad     main country                     gwlad  noun (f)

The numbers un  - one (feminine only) and dau/dwy - two - cause a soft mutation in a following noun, for example:
             un ddafad, dwy ddafad, tair dafad             dafad  sheep (f)
             one sheep, two sheep, three sheep           
             un llyfr, dau lyfr, tri llyfr                               llyfr book (m)
             one book, two books, three books

A soft mutation is applied immediately after the subject of the sentence:
            Gwelodd dynes (subject) gath yn y goeden
          A woman (subject) saw a cat in the tree 

The subject may sometimes be omitted, but a treiglad is applied after the point where the subject would have appeared:
                Gwelodd ddyn yn y stryd
          He (subject omitted) saw a man in the street 

No treiglad is necessary if the article (y or 'r) immediately follows the subject, as y does not take a treiglad:
             Rhoddodd athro (subject) lyfr i'r myfyriwr
            A teacher gave a book to the student 
           Rhoddodd athro (subject) y llyfr i'r myfyriwr
            A teacher gave the book to the student

The commonly used words shown below are actually contractions of short phrases involving the verb form gwel...  (see...)
       Dyma (here is)  -  shortened from  gwel di yma   (you see here)
       Dyna (there is)  -  shortened from  gwel di yna    (you see there)
       Dacw (there is)  -  shortened from  gwel di acw   (you see yonder)

This causes dyma, dyna and dacw to behave as if they are short form verbs, and cause a soft mutation of the object of the sentence.  For example:
        Dyna ddyn sy'n bwyta llawer
        That (subject) is (verb) a man who eats a lot (object)

but again the soft mutation does not occur if the article is present:
         Dyna'r dyn sy'n bwyta llawer      
         That is the man who eats a lot

A soft mutation is applied where yn proceeds a noun or adjective, for example:
         Mae'r dyn yn dew         The man is fat           tew  fat
         Mae'r anifail yn gwningen                             cwningen   rabbit      
         The animal is a rabbit


The word 'gyda' is usually translated as the English words 'with' or 'among':

       Mae'n dŷ mawr gyda phedair ystafell wely.
       It is a large house with four bedrooms.

       Mae adran gerddoriaeth y Brifysgol gyda'r gorau ym Mhrydain.
       The University's music department is one of the best in Britain.

Notice that 'gyda' produces a treiglad llaes, affecting the letters t,c and p:
               gyda thŷ            with a house               tŷ           house 
               gyda charreg    with a stone                carreg   stone              
               gyda phlant      with children                plant     children             

'gyda' appears in a number of idioms:

gyda llaw - by the way
      Gyda llaw, rhaid i ni orffen erbyn amser cinio.
      By the way, we must finish by lunch time.

gyda trn - by train
       Mae llawer o ymwelwyr yn teithio i Gymru gyda trn.  
       Many visitors travel to Wales by train.

gyda'r nos
- in the evening
      Rydyn ni'n mynd allan am bryd o fwyd gyda'r nos weithiau.
      We sometimes go out for a meal in the evening.

gyda'r post - by post
      Rwy'n derbyn y cylchgrawn bob mis gyda'r post.
      I receive the magazine each month by post.

gyda hynny - at that moment
      Gofynnodd am wirfoddolwyr a gyda hynny daeth pobl ymlaen.
      He asked for volunteers and at that moment people came forward.

gyda'i gilydd - together
       Maen nhw'n cytuno i weithio gyda'i gilydd ar y prosiect.
       They agree to work together on the project.

gyda golwg ar - with the intention of
        Es i Gaerdydd gyda'r golwg ar weithio yno.
        I went to Cardiff with the intention of working there.

Translate the sentence:

Public transport is important for people who live in Wales and for visitors.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)


The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.


attend  mynychu verb;  eagerly  eiddgar  adjective;
exchange  cyfnewid   verb;   desert  anialwch  noun(m);

Suzi and Anna were friends at Cardiff university.
Both are now married and living in different parts of South Wales.
They met by chance in a railway station in London.
They were both waiting for a train back to Wales.
Suzi was working for a few days at her company`s office in London.
Anna was attending a conference.
They travelled back together, eagerly discussing everything that had happened since they last met.
Before parting, they exchanged phone numbers.
They had an idea to arrange a holiday together like in their university days.
Suzi phoned Anna a few days later.
"Let`s go to Mexico - go to the desert and climb a volcano".
They were surprised when their families agreed to go on the trip.
Then everything went wrong.
The global virus pandemic meant that it was not safe to travel.
They balanced the risks and decided to cancel the holiday.
Suzi suddenly thought - we used to have exciting trips to Pembrokeshire when we were students.
Suzi found her equipment for diving and climbing which had been stored away in a cupboard.
She phoned Anna with a plan.
"We can book a cottage, then perhaps go climbing on the cliffs and diving along the shore.
It will still be amazing".

Translate the sentence:

Suzi and Anna were friends at Cardiff university.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)

Create your own story in Welsh

Click the button to randomly select a set of story icons:

Use of Welsh

Pizza recipe

A recipe for a sun-dried tomato and Motzzarella pizza has been published.

You are invited to translate the recipe into Welsh.


dough  toes  noun (m);   crust  cramen  noun (f);
sprinkle   ysgeintio  verb;   mince  briwio  verb;  
even  cyfartal  adjective;   garlic  garlleg   noun (m);
cut, chop  torri  verb;  gently  yn ysgafn;
stretch  ymestyn  verb;  melt  toddi  verb;

Translate the sentence:


Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:

Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

What are the main activities for which children use electronic devices?

What beneficial use of electronic devices by children is mentioned in the article?

For how much time each day do children use electronic devices on average?

According to the article, in what ways can use of electronic devices affect children?

What dangers are associated with children`s use of social media?

According to the article, who should be made aware of the results of research into children`s use of electronic devices?

Plant yn gor-ddefnyddio dyfeisiau electronig oes angen i ni boeni?

Mae`n amlwg fod plant a phobl ifainc yn treulio mwy o`u hamser yn defnyddio dyfeisiau electronig. Gall hynny fod yn wylio`r teledu, gwrando ar gerddoriaeth neu chwarae gmau electronig. Mae`r gwaith ymchwil o fewn y maes hwn yn dechrau cydnabod problemau a thrafferthion wrth or-ddefnyddio`r dyfeisiau. Ond, gallwn gydnabod fod y cyfleoedd i ddysgu drwy ddyfeisiau electronig yn bwysig o fewn plentyndod.

Y newid mwyaf yw`r amser y mae plant yn ei dreulio o flaen y sgrn ac yn defnyddio dyfeisiau electronig. Mae cyfartaledd yn chwech awr a hanner y dydd. Gall amser cyswllt plant a phobl ifanc ar y dyfeisiau wneud gwahaniaeth i batrymau cysgu ac ymddygiad.

Mae gorddefnydd o rwydweithiau cymdeithasol yn arwain at rannu gormod o wybodaeth, at ddylanwadu ar hunanddelwedd corfforol a bod yn agored i gynnwys a chyngor niweidiol. Gall hyn gael effaith negyddol ar eu lles.

Mae angen mwy o waith ymchwil o fewn amser y mae plant a phobl ifanc yn ei dreulio o flaen sgrn. Bydd astudiaethau yn y maes hwn yn sicrhau bod gan rieni y wybodaeth ddiweddaraf a mwyaf cywir i wneud y penderfyniad cywir o ran defnyddio sgrin.

Enter each section of your story in Welsh in the boxes below: