Session 19

Language notes

In this section we will examine some verb patterns which are connected with the small words yna, a and y:

The word yna is used in sentences which indicate that something is present, for example:
   Mae yna siop yn y pentref.
   There is a shop in the village.
   Mae yna drn yn yr orsaf.
   There is a train in the station.

These may be written in an abbreviated form:
    Mae'na siop yn y pentref.

If the word yna is omitted in these examples, the sentences appear incomplete:
     Mae siop yn y pentref.....
      A shop in the village is....

Some further information is expected.  For example:
     Mae siop yn y pentref yn gwerthu llaeth a bara.
     A shop in the village sells milk and bread.
     Mae trn yn yr orsaf yn mynd i Fangor.
     A train in the station is going to Bangor.

The words a and y are used to join the components of a complex sentence where the second part of the sentence provides additional information about the topic introduced in the first part:

        Dyna'r cr a berfformiodd yn yr eisteddfod.
        That is the choir that performed in the eisteddfod.

        Mae gan John feic y gallwch ei fenthyg.
        John has a bicycle that you can borrow.       

Use of a and y in Welsh is analogous to the use of who and whom in English sentences. We might say:
            That is the man who bought the house
            Dyna'r dyn a brynodd y tŷ.
            That is the man about whom my brother spoke.
            Dyna'r dyn y siaradodd fy mrawd amdano.

When new information is given without referring back to an ealier part of the sentence, the word a is used:

      Rwyf wedi cofrestru ar gyfer y cwrs a fydd yn cychwyn yn yr hydref.
      I have registered for the course that will start in the autumn.

       Dyna'r castell a welais ar y bryn uwchben y dref.
       That is the castle that I saw on the hill above the town.

However, if a direct reference is made back to an earlier component of the sentence, then y is used.  The reference may by produced by a preposition, e.g. iddi or gyda:    
       Gallwn wneud y gacen y prynais y cynhwysion iddi.
       We can make the cake that I bought the ingredients for.
       Mr Jones yw'r rheolwr y mae'r peirianwyr yn gweithio gydag ef.
       Mr Jones is the manager that the engineers are working with.

A reference to an earlier part of the sentence may also be made by a pronoun, e.g ei:

       Dyna'r ystafell y gwnaethon ni ei phaentio'r mis diwethaf.
       That is the room that we painted last month.


We will now examine the effects of yna (there...)a and y (that, who,...) on treigladau.

The word yna produces a treiglad meddal:
     Mae yna gastell ar y bryn.              There is a castle on the hill.
     Mae yna bont dros yr afon.            There is a bridge over the river.

A treiglad is not required for a noun which follows mae to form the subject of the sentence:
       Mae castell ar y bryn yn dyddio nl i'r Normaniaid.  
       A castle on the hill dates back to the Normans.

       Mae pont dros yr afon yn arwain i'r fferm.    
       A bridge across the river leads to the farm.

The word meaning 'who, that, which...' produces a treiglad meddal:

      Roedd lawnt o flaen y tŷ a dorrais bob wythnos.
      There was a lawn in front of the house that I cut every week.

      Mae beic yn y sied a ddefnyddiwyd gan Mr Jones.
      There is a bicycle in the shed that was used by Mr Jones.

The word y meaning 'whom, that, which...' does not produce a treiglad meddal:

      Roedd problem gyda'r gwres canolog y gweithiodd y plymwr arno.
      There was a problem with the central heating on which the plumber worked.
       Bydd trn am bedwar o'r gloch y dylech ei ddal.
       There will be a train at four o'clock that you should catch. 


The word 'trwy' generally has the meaning 'through':
            Cerddon ni drwy'r coed.
            We walked through the wood.
            Gwelodd e'r postmon trwy'r ffenest.
            He saw the postman through the window.

'trwy' appears in a number of common phrases and idioms:

trwy wahoddiad  - by invitation
       Mae mynediad i'r clwb golff trwy wahoddiad yn unig.
       Entry to the golf club is by invitation only.

trwy'r post  - by post
       Gallwch anfon eich archeb trwy'r post neu drwy e-bost.
       You can send your order by post or by e-mail.

trwy'r amser - all the time, always
       Mae'r dref yn brysur trwy'r amser yn yr haf.
       The town is always busy in the summer.

trwy'r trwch  - close together
       Mae'r teulu cyfoethog a'r gweision yn byw trwy'r trwch yn y plasty.
       The rich family and servants live together in the mansion.

trwy lafur - by hard work
       Trwy lafur gwnaeth e'r bwyty yn llwyddiant.
       By hard work he made the restaurant a success.

trwy'r cyfan - throughout it all
       Roedd tywydd y gaeaf yn wael ond roedd y ffermwr yn cadw'r defaid             yn ddiogel trwy'r cyfan.
       The winter weather was bad but the farmer kept the sheep safe 
        througout it all.

The word 'tua' generally means 'about':
                  Mae'r gwaith yn cymryd tua chwe awr.
                  The work takes about six hours.
                  Roedd yn costio tua deg punt.
                  It cost about ten pounds.

'tua' appears in a number of phrases relating to directions:

tuag yn l  - backwards
              Rholiodd y car tuag yn l i lawr yr allt.
              The car rolled backwards down the hill.
tuag i mewn - inwards
             Plygwch gaead y blwch tuag i mewn.
             Fold the lid of the box inwards. 
tuag i fyny  - upwards
             Mae'r trac yn arwain tuag i fyny trwy'r goedwig.
             The track leads upwards through the forest.
tuag at - towards
             Symudodd yr orymdaith tuag at sgwr y dref.
             The procession moved towards the town square.
tuag adref - homewards
             Roedden ni'n cerdded tuag adref ar l y gm bl-droed.        
             We were walking home after the football match. 
tua'r ochr  -  sideways
             Gwthiodd y gwynt y lori tua'r ochr.
             The wind pushed the lorry sideways.

tua'r tir - landwards
tua'r mr  - seawards
             Mae gan y tŷ ffenestri sy'n wynebu tua'r mr a tua'r tir.
             The house has windows which face seawards and landwards.

Translate the sentence:

The Great Orme is a huge limestone headland overlooking the town and bay of Llandudno.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)


The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.


cockpit  sedd peilot  noun (f);  inland  mewndir  noun (m);
burst  byrstio  verb;  silence  distawrwydd  noun (m);
grassland  glaswelltir  noun (m);  torch  tortsh  noun (f);

A pilot of a jet aircraft set off on a dark night without a moon for a training flight.
The flight was to take him along the north coast of Wales and then inland across the mountains at a low altitude.
As he crossed the coast, an explosion suddenly occurred in the engine.
The aircraft lost power and smoke started to fill the cockpit.
The situation was serious, without any chance of saving the aircraft.
The pilot had no choice but to pull the emergency handle and escape from the aircraft.
As he descended by parachute, he saw a flash in the distance as the aircraft hit the mountain side and burst into flames.
He landed in an open space in the silence.
Looking around he could see grassland with trees and a lake.
It appeared that he was in some sort of country park with fairground rides in the distance.
At that moment, he saw a torch light and a man arrived.
"Are you a policeman?" the pilot asked.
"No, I was in the park, I saw you coming down by parachute and I wanted to make sure that you were not injured".
"Do you work here?" the pilot said.
"No , I sometimes climb over the fence at night when the park is closed.
I collect mushrooms to sell.
I`ll phone the police for you now, but I`ll have to disappear before they arrive - I don`t want to be caught".

Translate the sentence:

A pilot of a jet aircraft set off on a dark night without a moon for a training flight.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)

Create your own story in Welsh

Click the button to randomly select a set of story icons:

Use of Welsh

Food Hygiene Rating Scheme

The scheme helps you choose where to eat out or shop for food by giving you clear information about the businesses hygiene standards. The scheme by the Food Standards Agency in partnership with local authorities in Wales.

Information about the scheme is given opposite.  This is to be displayed on a web site.  You are asked to produce a Welsh translation.


rating  sgorio  verb;  rating  sgr  noun (f);
hygiene  hylendid  noun (m);  relevant  perthnasol  adjective;
take-away food   bwyd parod;  inspection  archwiliad  noun (m);
check  gwirio  verb;  cleanliness  glendid  noun (m);
frequency  amlder  noun (m);  serve  gweini  verb;

Translate the sentence:

The Food Hygiene Rating Scheme gives businesses a rating which is displayed at their buildings and online.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:

Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

The poem describes the thoughts and feelings of the poet when he visited the ruins of Castell y Bere in the Welsh mountains, What references does he make to the history of the castle?

What is the weather like?

What activities are taking place in the farmland around?

What birds can be heard?

How is the rural scene disturbed by an intrusive sound?

Castell y Bere

Iwan Llwyd (1957-2010)

Enillodd y Prifardd Iwan Llwyd goron Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cwm Rhymni yn 1990 am ei gyfrol Gwreichion. Ers hynny, bun adnabyddus iawn yng Nghymru fel bardd, awdur a cherddor hynod dalentog. Mae ei waith yn angerddol iawn am hanes Cymru ar iaith Gymraeg ac ymfalchai yn ei wreiddiau ai gynefin yng Nghymru.

Castell y Bere, 1997 Iwan Llwyd

Mae boncyffion y coed yn cofio
sodlaur milwyr yn gorymdeithio:
mae pob cam yn atseinion y co:

yma, a Chadair Idris yn gwarchod,
maen bosib dewis anghofio am gyfnod
y cymylau terfysg i gyfeiriad y mr:

maer hen risiau yn dal yno
lle bu breninesaun dringo,
ar tir hwn dan nenfwd un tro:

ffermwr yn cyfarth Cymraeg ar ei gwn,
ar defaid mor styfnig ag erioed, a swn
llif gadwyn o gyfeiriad Llanfihangel y Pennant:

mae Afon Cader yn dal i lifo
a dwyn cyfrinachaur bryniau heibio,
a mawl y fwyalchen yn deffror fro:

tyr crac awyren dros Graig y Deryn
ac or ochor bella ir dyffryn,
am y tro cyntaf eleni clywaf watwar y gog.


Story board

A story is outlined below as a series of numbered notes and pictures. You are invited to write the story in Welsh so that it could be displayed as an on-line blog or news item. If necessary, please feel free to add any additional details to develop the story.



Wetlands are areas with pools of water, along with aquatic plants such as mosses, rushes (brwyn) and sedges (hesg). The water becomes acid and has a shortage of oxygen, so plant material does not rot completely. Deposits of peat are formed.


In Wales, areas of high mountain plateau often become wetlands. This is due to the heavy rainfall, and the hard rocks which prevent water from draining away.


The thickness of the peat has increased slowly over thousands of years. However, in some places the peat is now being eroded. This is due to the water level falling.


Work is taking place in some areas of mountain peat bog to block streams and drainage ditches. This will allow the water level to rise in the peat, and wetland plants such as mosses will be able to grow again.


Wetlands are also found near the coast. The largest is Cors Fochno, in the Dyfi valley between Machynlleth and Borth. This wetland is located behind a gravel bank which developed across the mouth of the estuary after the Ice Age.


If the wetland in not managed, grasses may begin to replace the aquatic plants. Trees may grow, and the wetland could become grassland and forest.


One interesting way in which the wetland habitat of Cors Fochno is being managed is to introduce water buffalo. The animals graze on the grasses and small trees. They also break up the ground with their hooves, producing water pools where wetland plants can grow again.

Enter each section of your story in Welsh in the boxes below: